St Marys Church

Welcome to St Marys Church page which brings you text from
Vestiges of Old Newcastle and Gateshead by J.R. Boyle FSA
Low Felly Gaieshead'On-Tyne, June^ 1890.
The illustrations in the book are not available to me so I have sprinkled the text with pictures that were available

If you arrived here directly from the search engine you may wish to first visit the Gateshead History Overview of which St Marys Church is a vital part

The text by J R Boyle is a bit like reading porridge but gives a lot of intricate detail of the Church building which of course has now changed a lot since it was converted into a Visitor Centre.You may be interested in watching what the building is now like...if so click the link
YouTube video about St Mary's

Text by J R Boyle

The ecclesiastical history of Gateshead goes back to a very remote period.
When Peada, the son of Penda, king of the mid-Angles, came to Oswy, king of the Northumbrians, seeking his daughter, Elfleda, in marriage, he was told she could never be his wife unless he accepted the faith of Christ and was baptized.

" But he, having heard the preaching of the truth, and the promise of the heavenly kingdom, and the hope of the resurrection and of future immortality, freely confessed himself willing to become a Christian, even though he should not receive the maiden.
* * * He was therefore baptized by bishop Finan, with all his earls and soldiers and their servants who came with him, at a noted place of the king's, called *Ad Murum.* And having received four priests, who, by their learning and conduct, were deemed worthy to teach and baptize his people, he returned home with great joy. These priests were Cedd and Adda and Betti and Diuma, of whom the last was by birth a Scot, but the rest were English. But Adda was the brother of Utta, a renowned priest, and abbot
of the monastery which is called * Ad Caprae Caput.* "

This was in the year 653. Ad Caprae Caputs literally, ** at the head of the goat," is almost certainly Gateshead.* Of Utta the priest and abbot of Gateshead all we know is that he was sent by king Oswy into Kent, to bring thence Oswy*s wife, Eanfleda, the daughter of king Edwin. His journey to the south was accomplished by land, but he returned by sea, and Bede tells us how he miraculously calmed a storm by pouring on the waves a flask of holy oil which had been given him for this purpose by bishop Aidan. No fragment of Utta's monastery exists, and the tradition which fixes its site where bishop Farnham's chapel of St. Edmund stands is perfectly valueless.

* Some respectable authorities have doubted whether Ad Caprae Caput can be fixed at Gateshead, the genuine etymology of which must unquestionably be sought in the Saxon Gatesheved, the gatis htad^ i.e.^ the head or terminus of the road. Symeon, however, in his " History of the Church of Durham," calls the place where Walcher was murdered, "Ad Caput Caprae," and in the " Historia Regum " we are told that the tragedy occurred "in loco qui
dicitur Gotesheved, id est, Ad Caput Caprae." An identification which obtained in Symeon's day need not be disputed now.
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From this time to the year 1080 we have no records of the history of Gateshead. Walcher, a Norman ecclesiastic, was then bishop of Durham. After the execution of Waltheof, the last Saxon earl of Northumberland, the earldom was bought by Walcher. Some of the chroniclers represent his government as oppressive, unjust, and cruel. Even Symeon of Durham, who seeks to screen the bishop's character, admits that his ministers were guilty of great wrongs against the people. Gilbert and Leofwine were chief amongst these ministers. The former was Walcher*s relative, and was entrusted with the aflfairs of the earldom. The latter was his chaplain, and was his confident in all private matters. Liulph, a Saxon lord, and founder of the noble family of Lumley, had fled from the south before the invading Normans, and had
taken up his abode on the banks of the Wear, within the domains of St. Cuthbert. Here his nationality, his rank, and his virtues endeared him to the down-trodden Saxons, with whose cause he identified himself. Although he enjoyed the friendship of Walcher, and was a frequent guest at his table, the esteem in which he was held by the people, and the fearless remonstrances against the injustice of Leofwine and Gilbert which he frequently poured into the bishop's ear, kindled against him the hatred of these men. Leofwine determined upon his destruction, and this decision Gilbert undertook to execute. Attended by troops, he surrounded Liulph's house in the night, and put him and the greater part of his family to the sword. Walcher protested his grief, and declared that he had no part in the design. But he made no attempt to bring the criminals to justice ; and the assassin and his instigator continued in their master's favour. The dissatisfaction of the people now
knew no bounds, and open rebellion seemed imminent. Shortly afterwards the bishop summoned a public meeting at Gateshead, and thither the enraged people flocked. All he could do to appease them proved fruitless, and, foreseeing the gathering storm of outraged human passions, he, with a few followers, retired to the little church (ecclesiola). Thither the crowd followed
him. He then induced Gilbert to go out to the people and endeavour to calm them, but he was instantly slain. Presently Walcher himself went forth ; but
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on his appearance the cry was raised, "Short red, good red, slay ye the bishop/' and he perished miserably. Leofwine still remained in the church, and refused to come out. The people then set fire to the edifice, and when at last Leof- wine was driven out by the advancing flames he shared the fate of Walcher and Gilbert. Many others of the bishop's followers perished at the same time.
These tragic events occurred on the 14th day of May, 1080.

This narrative affords evidence that Gateshead had a church in very early Norman times, which, there can scarcely be a doubt, had been built before the Conquest. Whether the church at the doors of which Walcher was slain occupied the site of the present church of St. Mary it is impossible to say.*

The church as it now stands has been strangely stripped of its architectural features, and to the really ancient portions it is not easy to ascribe even approximate dates. The old parts of the north and south walls of the nave, and portions of the walls of the south transept, have the appearance of early Norman work. The masonry is of cubicular character, and there are no traces
of buttresses. I have little doubt that these parts of the church were built soon after the death of Walcher.

The north wall of the chancel, with its one ancient window, is probably much later. This window, which is blocked by a tablet inscribed with the Decalogue, and is only visible from the chancel, is widely splayed, and surrounded by a bold roll-moulding. The eight corbels which support the modern roof, and are excellent examples of Norman sculpture, are of the same period.
In ascribing a later date to the chancel I am borne out by the testimony of old engravings, which show two flat, pilaster-like buttresses on its south wall.
My opinion, though I state it with great diffidence, is that the existing portions of the ancient chancel date from about the middle of the twelfth century.

* Bourne mentions a tradition that the church at which Walcher was slain stood " in the Field below where Brick-Kilns now are," a spot which Hodgson's invaluable "Picture of Newcastle upon Tyne" further describes as "the field on the north east side of the [old] rectory [in Oakwellgate], once called Lawless-Close, and afterwards the Millers-Field."
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The south door of the nave, of which the only original portion is the deeply moulded arch, with its doubly indented label,
is still later, and belongs to the Transitional period, or about the close of the twelfth century.

The arcades of the nave, each of five arches, resting on plain octagonal piers, without capitals, but with bold and well-moulded bases, are of late Decorated date, and belong to near the middle of the fourteenth century. The walls of the clerestory were probably built at the same time, but it must be remembered that their windows, like all other windows in the church, except the one in the north wall of the chancel, are entirely modern. The present north transept was built in Perpendicular times. There had, however, previously been a transept here, for the chantry of St. Mary, founded before 1324, is repeatedly spoken of as being **in the north porch (in porticu boreali)." The roof of the nave
is of Perpendicular character, and may be ascribed to the latter part of the fifteenth century. It bears along its centre a series of good bosses, carved with foliage. The old tower was taken down, and the present one built in 1739-40. The walls at the west end of the nave were rebuilt at the same time. Triple sedilia and a piscina were removed from the south wall of the chancel by one Dr. Prossor, who was rector of Gateshead from 1808 to 1810.
The church underwent extensive ** restoration" in 1838-39. The whole edifice, but especially the chancel, suffered greatly from the terrible Gateshead explosion of October, 1854. The south and east walls of the chancel were shortly afterwards rebuilt, and much repair was required in other parts.

Chantries and Anchorage.

St. Mary's had three chantries. The following brief notices of these foundations are followed, in each case, by the inventory of ** ornaments and goods" which they possessed at the time of their dissolution in 1548.
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I. — The chantry of St. Mary, founded before 1324, when Alan of Gateshead, priest, and custodian of the altar of the blessed Mary in the north porch [t'.e.y the north transept] of the church of Gateshead, leased a tenement in Akewelgate to Roger Redesdale of Newcastle. In 1330, Alan, son of Alan Prester, and Alan Prester of Gateshead, confirmed to the priest of this chantry ten messuages in Gateshead, and an annual rent charge of 6s. 8d. from another messuage in the same place. Its yearly value at the dissolution of chantries was j^S 6s. 4d.

" Plate, one challis, gylte, ponderis xvj. di. unces. Ornamentes not praysed. Lead, bells, none."

2. — The chantry of St. John the Apostle and St. John the Baptist, sometimes styled the chantry of St. Eloi,* founded by John Dolphanby in 1421.
On the 29th June in that year he gave to the priest of this chantry, " now founded by me,*' and his successors, fourteen tenements in Gateshead. Yearly value at the dissolution, £7 16s. 8d.

" Plate, one challis, the shelle of silver and gilte, wayinge iiij. ownces. Goodes and ornamentes not praysed. Stocke, &c., none."

3. — The chantry of the Holy Trinity, said to have been founded **by one Alan Prestore." Yearly value, £6 3s. lod.

** Plate, one challis, percell gilte, ponderis xiij. ownces. Ornamentes not praysed. Leade and bells, none."t

* Brand, Surtees, and others have regarded the chantry of St. Eloi as a separate foundation, which they state was founded in 1442 by John Dolphanby, who, however, died in 1421. This John Dolphanby, on the loth April, 1421, granted to Henry de Etton, rector of Gateshead, John de Vescy [priest of Dolphanby's chantry of Saints John the Baptist and John the Apostle], and Robert de Helton, priests, all his lands in Gateshead in trust for his grandson
Robert; and on the 12th March, 1429, Vescy and Helton released to this Robert all the lands whereof they, with Henry
Etton, then dead, were formerly enfeoffed by John Dolphanby, " except fourteen tenements which John Vescy holds in
right of his chantry of St. Eloi." These fourteen tenements are clearly John Dolphanby's endowment of the chantry of
Saints John, which, however, had in some way acquired a second dedication to St. Eloi in less than eight years after its
foundation, but yet thirteen years before the assumed foundation of a separate chantry of St. Eloit.  In 1541, Richard Towgall, priest, died, and, in his will, made the following bequest :

*' Item I gyve my chales vnto the chirche [of St. Mary, Gateshead] of this condition and if it pleas god that thair fawU a chantre within this forsayd chirche beynge at the p'ochinars gyfte and the p'ochinars to be so good vnto my cousinge Sir Jhoane [Hutchinson, son of the testator's sister] as to gyve and promote hym befoir another this doven then this Chales to stand as gyft And if he be not promotid and spedde be thos forsaid p'ochinars then this chales to stand as no gyft but onlye to go vnto my executors And thay to dispojme it for the health of my souU."

In I444 John Hutchinson was presented to the chantry of the Holy Trinity, which he held till the dissolution of chantries. It is, of course, impossible to determine whether Towgall's chalice became the property of the chantry held by his nephew, or, as is more probable, of the church itself.
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In an inventory of the ** Church Goods, &c. within the Countie of the Byshopricke of Duresme," taken in May, 1553, we find that the church of Gateshead possessed **one challice, with a paten, all gilt, weying xviij. unces, thre gret bells and one lyttell bell in the stepell,* and x. sacring bells."

On the 14th November, 1340, the bishop of Durham granted licence to John Wawayn, rector of Brancepeth, to select and appoint a sufficient space in the graveyard of the church of St. Mary of Gateshead, adjoining the said church, to build thereon a habitation to be the dwelling of a certain anchoress.
The name of the lady has not been preserved. The position chosen was on the north side of the chancel, and the structure erected there, although it has once, at least, been almost entirely rebuilt, is still called **The Anchorage. "t


Amongst the memorials of the departed at St. Mary's the early grave covers must be first noticed. Of these, three fragments are inserted in the walls beneath the chancel arch. An almost complete fourteenth century grave cover on the south side is interesting as being that of a child, and bearing the most usual emblem of a male — a sword. In the walls of the porch are two grave covers. One of these, of thirteenth century date, on which the only

* All the bells now in St. Mary's steeple are modern. They were cast by Messrs. Mears, of London, in 1788.
The church of Ileworth, however, possesses an ancient bell which formerly belonged to St. Mary's, and is doubtless one of the hells mentioned above. The occasion of its removal to Heworth is recorded in a missing volume of St. Mary's
vestry books ;

** 22 April, 1 701. Ordered by the Rector and Twenty Fouer, that the litell bell now in the bellfry in the parish church of Gateshead be presented to Robert Ellison Esq., for the use of Heworth Chappell, in leiwe of the arrerages due to the said Robert Ellison for the Blew Quarry Spring."
This old bell bears an inscription and three crosses. These are engraved in the Archceologia jEliana (old series), vol. I.,
and are explained in the following volume of the same publication, though I cannot say satisfactorily, to have been :

4* (110 E.Qai >{< He 9^ 4*

Mr. Robert Blair, of South Shields, who has devoted much attention to the church bells of Northumberland and Durham, reports that the inscription " is now so corroded that, beyond the crosses, nothing can be made of it."

f The reader who wishes for information about the life of an anchor or anchoress may be referred to a paper by the late M. H. Bloxham in the second volume of the " Reports and Papers of the Associated Architectural Societies," afterwards embodied in the last edition of the same writer's ♦' Principles of Gothic Architecture," and to the third volume of Rock's " Church of Our Fathers," a valuable, but by no means unbiassed, authority. Cutts's " Scenes ard Characters of the Middle Ages," may also be consulted, and bishop Poore's "Ancren Riewle," printed in one of the volumes of the Camden Society, will repay examination.
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emblem is a pair of shears, denoting a female, is an ornate, though roughly executed, example. The head of the cross, which is S35^!''^^^pi*^ in low relief on a sunk circle, is a beautiful design.
The other grave cover in the porch is of the fourteenth century, and is especially interesting from the very unusual character of one of the emblems. The cross itself is of the simplest design. On its sinister side is a key — a female emblem — whilst on the dexter
side is a large fish. Much has been said about the symbolism of this figure, but the analogies afforded by other mediaeval English grave slabs forcibly confirm the opinion that the fish is here simply the emblem of a worldly calling, and that the worthy woman whose grave this stone originally covered was a fishwife.* Both these grave covers were found during the progress of alterations in the church in 1838. We now come to monuments of a much more recent date. The following epitaph, inscribed upon a mural grave cover.
tablet now fixed to the wall near the tower arch, deserves to be preserved :


Reader in that piece of earth
In peace rests Thomas Arrowsmith
In peace hee livd in peace went hence
With god and men and conscience
Peace for other men hee sovght
And peace with peeces sometime bovght
Pacifici may others bee


Peace reader then doe not molest
That peace whereof hees now possest
The god of peace for him in store
Hath iov and peace for evermore
pangit plangit


RoBERTvs Arrowsmith ;•;

* That the fish had a mystic significance in the early Christian church cannot be doubted. The Greek word IXGYS (a fish), forming the initials of the sentence, *lijaov9 Xpi<rro9 Ohov Y/09 'Swri^p (Jesus Christ the Son of God the Saviour), was early introduced as a mystic symbol into inscriptions ; but even on the monuments of the catacombs the figure of a fish has been conclusively shown to mean only that the deceased was a fisherman or a vendor of fish.
See Didron's " Christian Iconography " (Bohn*s edition). Vol. I., pp. 354-364.
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Herch>tK inteiYcl flieBody]
oflmo\hylxzAcKe VifirfM
^dvefihiiw fElizabdh his :
ii^ife u)ho had tefuc by him")
Children a^urvivd Xhem y\%
TTiTiotb^ S^Georg 3he]3<?pt^.
Chis life yj5 day of October '
c/r>noj6s'9 Hc^Deptcd thi?j
life j^ 6 xfe^ofgbriui^ jfo

This Thomas Arrowsmith was one of the **Four and Twenty*' of Gateshead from 1627, when the vestry books commence, till 1630. His important standing in Gateshead society is indicated by his being placed fourth in the lists, his name being only preceded by the names of **Mr." Joseph Browne, " Parson," Sir Thomas Riddell, and " Mr." Ralph Cole. Arrowsmith himself has the distinction of ** Mr." before his name in one year's list, but elsewhere he is plainly "Thomas.'** He died in September, 1632.

But the most noteworthy monument in the church is that of Timothy Tyzack. .He was probably a son of **Tymothie Teswicke, glase makar, a ffrenchman," one of whose sons, John, was baptized at St. Nicholas's, Newcastle, on the 22nd November, 1619. Of Timothy Tyzack of Gateshead, our only information is gathered from the vestry books and the registers of St. Mary's. In 1654 "Mr. Tymothie Tisick" was appointed one of the "Collectors or overseers for the Poore." Three years later the register records the burial of " Henrie Collingwood, servant to Mr. Timothy Tyzack." In 1662 he was elected one of the churchwardens, and the accounts for that and the following year are in his handwriting. His caligraphy is bold and somewhat florid, and is adorned with broad black borders, and other decorative penmanship. In 1663 he became one of the "Four and Twenty," an ofl5ce which he held till

• Abstract of Thomas Arrowsmith's Will. — In the name of God, Amen, the Twentith daie of November,
1631, I Thomas Arrowsmyth thelder of Gatesid in the Countie of Durham yeoman etc. To be buryed w'^'in the p'ishe Church of Gatesid. To Elizabeth my nowe wife the some of Eight pounds by the yeare. To John Arrowsmyth my Sonne All those my two Burgags or Tenements on both sides of the streete in Pipewellgaite in Gatesid. To my said Sonne John Arrowsmyth all the furniture and ymplementes of household stuffe w**»in my Chamber next adjoyneing unto the Ryver of Tyne, togeather with my best Byble and One silver Cann double guylte. To my sonne Thomas Arrowsmyth my two cottage howses in Gatesid in a streete or place theare called Ackwellgaite. To my sonne Robert Arrowsmyth One hundred pounds. Residue to my said sonne Thomas Arrowsmyth.
The Tyzack Monument.
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1677, and perhaps later; but after that date the vestry books are missing. In 1674 he was appointed, with three others, to **goe about w*^the Parson and Churchwardens throughout the whole parish to make discovery of all such Inmates, strangers or others that are or may be troublesome to the parish, and the same so found to present to the fower and twenty against their next
meeting/' Tyzack is described on his monument as a ** Merchant Adventurer." The commodities in which he dealt were of varied character. Amongst the items of wardens* expenditure in 1660 we have :
"to M' Tissicke for a pound of powder and math [match] ... 00 01 05"
And, in 1680, the missing account book has the item :
** Tim. Tyzack, for figgs 00 02 06"

Three other tradesmen supplied prunes to the value of 4s. Prunes and figs were required for distribution amongst the boys ** when we ridd the bounderie." Tyzack was a member of the Gateshead incorporated company of Drapers, Tailors, Mercers, Hardwaremen, Coopers, and Chandlers, who had a charter from Oliver Cromwell and another from Bishop Cosin. In 1660 Tyzack described the stewards and members of his company as " fools and knaves," and also ** departed the meeting, and encouraged 13 brethren and the Company's Clerk to do the like without leave of the Stewards." (See note at the end of this chapter.)


The very eflfective stall-ends in the nave and transepts of St. Mary's church were erected in 1634. On the 24th June in that year, the "four and twenty" ordered ** that a fForty weekes Assessment according to the Collection Booke shall be levied for the building of the stalls in Gateshead Church." Three months later a second assessment for the same purpose, also of forty weeks, was ordered. The vestry books contain no entry of the amount thus realized,
nor any statement of the cost of the stalls. The two assessments, however, would produce from ;^ 90 to ;^ioo. In due time the stalls were completed, and
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the rector and wardens, by virtue of a commission issued to them " ffirora M' Thomas Burwell Maister of Arts, viccar general and principall oflBciall" to the bishop of Durham, proceeded ** to settle and place in the seats newly erected in the parish Church of Gates-
head all and each parishioner and Inha- bitant according to our discretions

and their severall qualUties," With the exceptions of a few wealthy
families, males and females had different parts of the church assigned to them.

Four of the bench ends have the anns of the families by which they were occupied carved upon them. One of these, now in the north transept, bears the arms of Sir Thomas Riddell, who was sheriff of Newcastle in 1601, mayor in 1604 ^i^d 1616. and representative in parliament for the same
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town in 1620 and 1628. His wife was one of the daughters of Sir John Conyers, of Sockburne.* On another, now in the south transept, are the arms of Sir Alexander Hall (see page 120 above). A third bench end, which now forms part of the reading desk, bears the arms of Liddell impaling those of Tonge, with the motto, fama semper vivit. This was the coat borne by Sir Francis
Liddell of Redheugh, who married Elizabeth, one of the daughters of Sir George Tonge of Denton, near Gainford. Sir Francis was sheriff of Newcastle in 1640 and mayor in 1664. The fourth bench end, also incorporated wuth the reading desk, bears the arms of Cole, a family about which I have much to say in a later chapter.t

The stalls of the chancel were erected during the short incumbency of Dr. John Smith, the editor of the historical works of Bede, Smith, the most distinguished scholar who has ever held the rectory of Gateshead, was collated to the living in June, 1695, and resigned it in December of the same year. It is pleasant to find his initials, in a double monogram, carved upon one of these later stall ends, and the year, during part of which he was rector, carved upon another.

The church possesses an old oak chair, chiefly remarkable as bearing the arms of Gateshead in a form, I believe, not found elsewhere until a com-

* 20 August, 1609. " The presentment of the churchwardens of the parish of Gaitshed.—
I. We knowe no recusants who are confined to our parish. 2. We have onelie one gentlewoman, Mrs. Ryddle the vryic
of Mr. Thomas Ryddle Esquire, who refuseth to come to church and to communicate with us ; but we must neades testifie this, that hir husband, together with his children and servantes, doo dewlie and verie orderlie and relig^ouslie, resort everie Sabaoth day to the church, ther to heare the word of God read and preached."

t "Stalls and Pewes setled and placed in Gateshead Church by the Parson and Church- wardens THERE By virtue OF A COMISSION FROM Y" PRINCIPALL OfFICIALL OF DURHAM BEARING DATE Y«

17 December 1634. Also the severall Rates of every perticuuler seat heerin menconed. NORTH.
* • * 4. S' Alexander Hall for 4 roumes pd i" 6» 8<*. 6. M' ffrancis Liddell his wife. 7. M' ffrancis Liddell.
8. M" Anne Cole, Susan Peareth, Ellinor Mallett. 9. M'** Cole. 10. S' Thomas Riddell and his ffemely. ii. S""
Thomas Riddell, M' Ralph Cole. * * * SOUTH. • * * 4. M' Nich« Calvert, M' John Cole, M' Cha Tempest,
M' Roger Liddell."

The following are the arms carved on the stall ends :

I. — Riddell. Quarterly ; first and fourth, within a bordure indented a lion rampant, second and third a fesse
between three garbs.

2. — Hall. A fesse engrailed between three griffins' heads erased.

3. — Liddell. Fretty, on a chief three leopards' heads, for Liddell, impaling a bend between six martlets for

4. — Cole. A chevron engrailed between three scorpions, on a chief three fleurs de lis.

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paratively recent date. The authentic arms of Gateshead are, a castle with two wings. But the arms on the old chair are, a goat's head erased, with a goat's head also as crest. The initials on the chair back are those of the churchwardens of 1666, Lancelot Ayer,
Peter Bell, John Woolfe, and Peter Trumble. In the wardens' accounts for that year, we have the item :
'' Paid for a New Chaire and
Covering a stoole for y®
Vestry £1
2s. 0d."
The volume from which this extract is taken contains the Gateshead parish accounts from 1626 to 1677, and is an
exceedingly interesting book.
Old Chair, St. Mary's.

• Abstract of Timothy Tyzack's Will.— In the Name of God, Amen. I Tymothy Tizackc of Gatesydc in
the County of Durham, etc. To my loveing ffriends William Aubone Esq*" now Maior of the Townc of Newcastle
upon Tyne and George Morton Esq*" one of the Aldermen of the said Towne my part Interest Tenant* right and Terme
of yeares of in and to a certaine Glasse house situate at holden panns in the County of Northumberland [in trust for]
my eldest son Timothy Tizacke to have take and receive to his owne use the rents issues proffits and benefitt of
the said Glassehouse. To my son George Tizacke my owne Bedd and Bedstead with all the ffurniture thereunto
belonging togeither with two paire of linnen sheets one dozen of linnen Napkins and one linnen Table cloath. To my
said son George Tizacke the summe of ffive hundred pounds. To my sister Prudence Smith Tenn pounds. To
my sister Elizabeth Langley Tenn pounds. To my sister Isabell Westwood Tenn pounds. To my maid Anne Roome
ffive pounds. Residue to my eldest son Timothy Tizacke. 6 January 1684.

The Tyzacks are one of three families, about which Bourne has an oft -quoted passage which must be repeated here :
" Sometime in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth came over to England from Lorrain^ the Henzels^ Tyzacks
and Tytorys. The Reason of their coming hither was the Persecution of the Protestants in their own Country,
of whose Persuasion they were. They were by Occupation Glass-makers. At their first coming to this Town
they wrought in their Trade at the Close-gate, after that they removed into Staffordshire^ from whence they
removed again and settled upon the River Side at the Place called from their abiding in it the Glass-houses,
Deservedly therefore have so many of these Families being named Peregrines from the Latin Word Peregrinus
which signifies a Pilgrim or a Stranger.

"Having at last settled here they became very numerous, and generally married into each others Families

to preserve the three Names of Henzel^ Tyzack and Tytoiy. But the latter of them within this Few Years

became extinct. There are of the Tyzacks several remaining ; but the Henzels are most numerous."

The period assigned by Bourne to the arrival of these families is probably too early. Our local parish registers afford

no evidence of their presence in this district before 1619, though the late George Bouchier Richardson discovered a

document, dated 17th April, 1568, to which "Thomas and Balthazar de Hennezes [certainly a copyist's mistake for
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Hennezel\ Esquiers, dwelling at the Glass-houses in the Vosges, in the countrie of Lorraine," were parties, and by
which they, " the said Thomas and Balthazar," undertook to transport themselves " as sone as possible maybe, to the
said countrie of Englande, and there to cause to be builded and edifyed two ovens to make great glas, and with us to
conducte, bring, and entertayne fower gentlemen glasiers ; that is to saye, two terrieures and two gatherers, and with
their aydc to make every daye, in eche of the said ovens, the quantitie of thirtie bundells of glas, whites or coulters,
goode, lawfull, and merchauntable, of good height and largenes, well proportioned."

To these families we are indebted for the establishment on the banks of the Tyne of a most important industry, and
it is interesting to find Joshua Henzell, as recently as 1838, described as the manager of the North Tyne Glass Works.

In Lorraine the Henzells, Tyzacks and Tytorys were ancient families. " Le Dictionnaire de la Noblesse de France "

(1774)1 ^ves a pedigree of Henzell which goes back to before 1392. The pedigree is introduced in the following terms :

" Hennezel : A noble family originally from the kingdom of Bohemia, of which the principal branch has

been established in Lorraine, during nearly four centuries. It has enjoyed, during this time, the highest

distinctions of the Province, having been allied with the families of the ancient knighthood, and having taken

part in Assizes. Many branches have actually settled in Switzerland, Hainault, Franche Compte, Nivernois,

Champaigne, and other provinces of the kingdom. It everywhere constantly maintains its station by its grand

alliances, its possession of fiefs, and of military dignities."

Bourne alludes to the intermarriages of these families. , The genealogy of the Hennezels of Lorraine, from which

I have just quoted, records eight instances, between the closing years of the fifteenth century ^nd the year 1707, in

which a Hennezel married a Hennezel, nine instances in which a Hennezel married a Tytory (de Thifetry), four in

which Hennezel married Tyzack (du Thisac), and one in which Tytory married Tytory. One case deserves especial

mention. Catherine de Hennezel, granddaughter of Didier de Hennezel and Marie Anne de Thi^try, married, in 1520,

as her first husband, Henri de Thi^try, and, in 1535, as her second husband, Charles du Thisac. The parish registers

of All Saints*, Newcastle, present a similar record. Between 1623 and 171 2, seventeen marriages of Henzell with

Henzell, five of Henzell with Tyzack, one of Henzell with Tytory, and one of Tyzack with Tytory are recorded.

In the seventeenth century some of the Tyzacks and Tytorys joined the Society of Friends in Gateshead and
Newcastle, but the Henzells, I believe, without exception, remained in the Church of England.

The "sumptuous heraldry," as Mr. Clephan calls it, of Timothy Tyzack's gravestone, demands a passing word.
The arms of the Hennezels of Lorraine were, de gueuUs^ h irois glands montans d' argent^ posis deux et une : the arms
borne by the Henzells in England, gules^ three acorns slipped or^ two and one, Mr. Charles W. Henzell of Tynemouth
possesses a magnificent glass bowl, questionless of Tyneside manufacture, on which these arms are engraved, with a
crescent in chief, and the name and date, JOHN HENZELL, 1756. The same coat appears, in this country at least, to
have been borne by the Tyzacks, and possibly by the Tytorys. Timothy Tyzack's seal, impressed upon his will, is a
shield with mantle, helmet and crest, bearing three acorns slipped^ two billets in chief. The arms impaled on Iiis grave-
stone are, a /esse between three lambs passant. Whom he married, I regret to say, I have been unable to discover.
The frontispiece to Mr. Grazebrook's book, mentioned below, is a copy of an old painting on vellum, recently, if not
now, in the possession of a Mr. Charles Pidcock of Worcester, bearing the Henzell arms, with crest and motto, the
latter, as on Tyzack's gravestone, being,

Seigneljr je te prie garde ma vie.
Beneath is the following inscription :

"This is the true Coate of Armes, with Mantle Helmet and Crest, pertayninge to the ffamely of M*"
Joshua Henzell of Hamblecott in the County of Stafford gentleman : Who was the Sonne of Annanias Henzell ;
De la Maison de Henzelly tout pre la Village de Darnell^ en la Pie del' Lorraine: Which Armes of his Auncestours
were there sett upp in the Duke of Lorraines Gallery windowe amongst many other Noblemens coates of
Armes, there Aneald in glasse. Being thus blazed ; Henzell On a ffeild Gules beareth Three Acornes Slipped
Or ; Twoe and One ; Ensigned with a Helmett propper ; Thereon a Wreath ; Or and Gules ; A ffire-boulte
and ffire-ball ; Or : Mantled ; Gules ; Ljmed Argent ; And Tasselled, and Buttoned ; Or ;

Edmund Blount : f^-'
The late H. Sydney Grazebrook published " Collections for a Genealogy of the Noble Families of Henzey,
Tyttery, and Tyzack (De Hennezel, De Thifetry, and Du Thisac) Gentilshommes Verriers, from Lorraine " (Stourbridge,
1877), but' his book, though extremely interesting and valuable, is chiefly concerned with the Staffordshire branches
of these families. A systematic search through the wills at Durham, the registers at Newcastle and Wallsend, and the
local archives 0/ the Society of Friends, would bring to light much additional information about the branches which
settled on the Tyne.